Anti-doping Rule Violations

What is an « anti-doping rule violation » ?
"Doping" is what happens when a violation of the anti-doping rules has taken place. The WADA Code and FEI Anti-Doping Rules for Human Athletes list  11 categories of anti-doping rule violations. The typical violation is a positive test, but not all violations are about taking prohibited substances.
Also, athletes are not the only ones involved in sport who can commit anti-doping rule violations. Some violations can be committed by non-athletes: members of an athlete’s entourage (coaches, medical staff, parents, officials, any other member of an athlete’s entourage) or any other person involved in equestrian sport.
The list below includes a brief explanation in brackets for each category of anti-doping rule violation:

  1. Presence of a prohibited substance, its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample.
    (Positive test)
  2. Use or attempted use by an athlete of a banned substance or method. This includes Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) cases.
    (Using or trying to use a prohibited substance)
  3. Evading, refusing or failing to submit to sample collection by an athlete.
    (Not going to the doping control station when notified or refusing to take a test or not giving a complete sample)
  4. Whereabouts failures by an athlete.
    (Not being where you say you will be or missing a test during your 60-minute time slot, not submitting your Whereabouts on time, or submitting incomplete or wrong information)
  5. Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of doping control by an athlete or other person
    (Interfering with the testing or doping control process, including during the prosecution of a case)
  6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or athlete support person
    (Having a prohibited substance in your possession)
  7. Trafficking or attempted trafficking of any prohibited substance or method by an athlete or other person
    (Handling, transporting, selling or attempting to sell prohibited substances)
  8. Administration or attempted administration by an athlete or other person to any athlete of any prohibited substance or method.
    (Giving or trying to give a prohibited substance to an athlete)
  9. Complicity or attempted complicity by an athlete or other person.
    (Helping or trying to help cover up an ADRV)
  10. Prohibited association by an athlete or other person.
    (Working with or seeking help/services from someone who is serving a period of ineligibility).
  11. Acts by an athlete or other person to discourage or retaliate against reporting to authorities 
    (Actions that frighten someone from reporting suspected doping, or acts of revenge against those who have reported).